Tag Archives: older women in fiction series

In Dependence by Sarah Ladipo Manyika

#BlackLivesMatter has encouraged me to promote novels by women of colour on my blog and on twitter with more vigour. Wanting to highlight such books I looked through the 600 or so posts on Bookword and found fewer than I expected. There have been more in recent months. When I reviewed Girls, Woman, Other by Bernardine Evaristo in June I included her list of recommendations on the Penguin site in March 2020

In Dependence appeared on that list. I was attracted to it because I had hugely enjoyed Like a Mule Bringing Ice Cream to the Sun by Sarah Ladipo Manyika and included it in Bookword’s older women in fiction series. The main character in that novel is an older woman from Nigeria, a professor of English Literature in San Francisco. She is a very attractive character, as flamboyant as the title, as she faces up to the social and physical consequences of a fall. You can read about that novel here

In Dependence

The story of In Dependence follows two friends who meet in 1963 at Oxford University. Nigeria has recently become independent. The politics of the time is allowing young people to control their destinies more, at least in Europe, and to feel more independent. In 1963 Tayo arrives in Oxford from Nigeria. He is handsome, intelligent but not naive or superior. He meets other African students, including Christine with whom he becomes enamoured. But they quarrel when he meets Vanessa, a white woman with ambitions to become a journalist in Africa. Tayo and Vanessa become lovers.

I was reminded of Elizabeth Taylor’s novel A Game of Hide and Seek, which also follows two people who were once in love and meet each other over the years, finding their lives cannot be entirely disentangled. Such long-term relationships cannot be easy for they involve changes in two people as well as the involvement of others.

The story unfolds over the years up until the end of the 20th century when Tayo receives an honorary degree from Oxford. In the meantime, Christine has committed suicide, Vanessa and Tayo split up when he got another (Nigerian) woman pregnant. He married her. Vanessa adopted a son in Senegal from a good friend who was killed, and later married an older man, a mutual Oxford acquaintance.

Tayo and Vanessa are apart but continue to think of each other. The book explores themes of extended and mixed families in the diaspora, how love does and doesn’t endure, changing Nigerian politics, dependence on children and partners and longstanding friendships. The implications of the title become clear, we are interdependent.

Sarah Ladipo Manyika

The author was born in 1968 and was raised in Nigeria. At one point in her life she taught English Literature in San Francisco State University. She has written two novels and several short stories as well as many articles. 

Also by Sarah Ladipo Manyika: Like a Mule Bringing Ice Cream to the Sun (2016) from older women in fiction series in 2018.

In Dependence Sarah Ladipo Manyika, published in 2008 by Legend Press and more recently reissued by Cassava Republic Press. 271pp

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Frangipani House by Beryl Gilroy

The generosity of book bloggers never ceases to move me. Since last August when I was guest blogger on Global Literature in Libraries looking at older women in fiction around the world I have had recommendations from many people. I really enjoy receiving these suggestions for the list and the series. Pam Giarrizzo went beyond recommending the book that is the subject of this post: she actually sent me a copy from California. Being so connected in the world shut down by Covid-19 was a great boost. There were further connections for me, as I will reveal. Thank you Pam.

This will be the 47th in the series championing fiction about older women in order to make them more visible. This book takes us to Guyana and was first published in 1986. It won the GLC Black Literature Competition in 1985. It is the first in this series from the Caribbean.

Frangipani House

Frangipani House is in Guyana, a large low house which had become a home for old women and where it sits ‘sleek and comfortable’ on the town’s edge. It is run by Olga Trask, known as Matron. 

A comely, honey-brown predator of a woman, short and crisp, with blue-grey eyes and a full head of coarse black hair. […] On admission the women placed everything in her care. (2) 

The story follows Mama King who is 69 and has been unwell for some time with malaria, quinsy and pleurisy. Her two daughters, Token and Cyclette, live in New York and decide to pay for her care at Frangipani House.

The residents are all women and none of them are happy, although some have lost the will to object to Matron’s regime. They adopt a number of strategies to deal with their situations: they sing, or die, or have a stroke, or fade away, or go mad. 

When Mama King’s pleading letters to her daughters go unanswered, she decides to run away. At first she is not found by Matron, but after a few weeks she ends up in hospital and Matron must answer to Mama King’s daughters for what has happened. And they must decide what should be done with her next.

Except it is Mama King’s decision in the end, which is as it should be, for the old woman has some strong opinions based on her experiences.

Through this short novel we see how different groups in Guyana regarded old people in the 1980s. There is the particular complication of the Guyanese diaspora, many family members can not be present to offer practical help and support. An important visit is made by Mama King’s grandson, Markey, who she cared for when he was small, and who is now in the US navy. In Guyana Mama King has a good friend in Grinchi who she has known from childhood. This friend has no children but a track record of helping those abandoned by their families. Issues of male violence, poor fathering, poor parenting and poverty all emerge in this satisfying novel. 

Beryl Gilroy

Beryl Gilroy (1924-2001) grew up in British Guiana, coming to Britain in 1951. She suffered discrimination but eventually became a primary headteacher in Camden at Beckford School (1969-1982), the first black headteacher in London.  She then went on to study and teach at the Institute of Education, part of the University of London. She wrote several more novels and including one based on her experiences as a teacher in London: Black Teacher (1976). Later, she became an ethno-psychotherapist.

In the tradition of Black women who write to come to terms with their trauma, or alternatively to understand the nature of their elemental oppression, I wrote to redefine myself and put the record straight. [From Leaves in the Wind]

She had to endure being ignored as both a woman and a black woman in her teaching and her writing careers.

And I find myself drawn to her educational biography as I too was a headteacher (of a secondary school) in north London, although twenty years after she took up her role. And I too moved on to the Institute of Education, and where her son Paul’s book, There Ain’t no Black in the Union Jack (1989), was a key text in thinking about cultural aspects of education.

In terms of the visibility of older women, her novel reminds us of the need for dignity and consideration in the care of older citizens. It also lays to rest the myth of widespread care in the community of older people in other cultures. But she also draws attention to some of the additional difficulties for families who have migrated. And she reminds us of some pretty admirable older women in Guyana, in her portraya  of Muriel King and Miss Grinchi.

Frangipani House by Beryl Gilroy, published in 1986 by Heinemann in the Caribbean Writer’s Series. 255pp. It is still available.

Here are some posts in the Older Women in Fiction series from outside the European tradition:

The Old Woman and the River by Ismail Fahd Ismail

The Woman from Tantoura by Radwa Ashou

Like a Mule Bringing Ice Cream to the Sun by Sarah Ladipo Manyika

See also a comprehensive list including many recent recommendations by readers, on the page called About the Older Women in Fiction Series.

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Great Granny Webster by Caroline Blackwood

This short novel is a fearsome portrait of a fearsome old woman. Great Granny Webster lives in Hove, Sussex, in a dark house, spending her time sitting upright in a chair, doing nothing. This has been her way of life for decades. What makes her live in this way?

Great Granny Webster is the 34thin the series on older women in fiction. You can find a list of all those previous posts and readers’ recommendations on the page About The Older Women in Fiction Series.

Summary of Great Granny Webster

This short novel is narrated by the great grand daughter who was 14 years old when she spent three months with the old woman in Hove in order to recuperate after an illness by taking in the sea air. The poor girl has to live with her great-grandmother in a rigid routine, waited on by one maid who is also very old. The description of the routine in the house is chilling, and very strong.

Often I would be in the same room as Great Granny Webster for hours and she would say not a single word to me. She would just sit there bolt upright in one of the most horribly uncomfortable highbacked wooden Victorian gothic chairs I have ever seen. One felt that originally it had only ever been intended to stand like a decoration in some imposing baronial hall. (13)

By contrast the narrator’s Aunt Lavinia is a fun-loving socialite of the post-war period. She is also described in detail, and we understand that she is no happier than Great Granny Webster. She is described in this way:

Aunt Lavinia was then thirty-two and she was always described as “jolie laide.” A play-girl in the style of the twenties, she was famous for her beautiful legs and for the fact that she had been married briefly to three millionaires while taking at the same time a large selection of lovers, who were not only friends of her husbands’ but almost as well-endowed financially. Her attitude to life appeared so resolutely frivolous that perversely she could seem to have the seriousness of someone with a driving inner purpose. She believed in having “fun” as if it was a state of grace. (29)

The second chapter provides a dramatic contrast to Aunt Lavinia’s grandmother, but we soon see that they are both iron-willed in pursuit of their chosen path.

A third chapter explores Dunmartin Hall in Ulster. To this house Great Granny Webster’s daughter went when she married. She goes mad and her devoted husband is quite unable to keep up the fabric or the conventions of this vast aristocratic house because he is so keen to support her. The footmen and butler wear rubber boots to serve the meals – always pheasants – as a protest against the damp conditions. This is the home of the narrator’s father. He died in the war but he frequently went to visit his grandmother in Hove before his death, and the narrator tries to find out what he liked about his visits. Again, we have a contrast, this time of the chaotic household and the rigid one.

Finally, years later, the narrator is called to the funeral of the old lady. In a scene of bizarre and ludicrous awfulness, the old lady’s ashes are tipped into her grave with only the narrator and her ancient maid as mourners.

The old woman

Behind this fearsome portrait of a sad old woman and those who were influenced by her lies the question – why on earth did she behave as she did? As a child and young woman she was was exposed to and constrained by those Victorian values and expectations of what it meant to be a woman from the upper classes. The rigid formality, the meeting of the expectations of others, the refusal to express emotions, the belief in her own righteousness, all these come from that upbringing. No matter that there have been major changes in society, two world wars and the ‘60s; no matter that her daughter is incarcerated for life in a lunatic asylum; that her granddaughter commits suicide; and her son-in-law appeals to her for help; despite all this she holds on to her rigidity and independence.

We are left in no doubt that it was a toxic upbringing, and that it had profoundly terrible effects on subsequent generations. We are to understand that much of this novel was based on Caroline Blackwood’s own experiences.

My reactions

I may have given the impression that this is a tough book to read. But the descriptions are marvellous and some of the details quite hilarious. Perhaps to show affection, but in any case highly inappropriate, the old lady indicates to her great-granddaughter that she will leave her a four-poster bed. One of the ornamental pineapples is a little loose and the old lady is very concerned that when it is moved into storage the removal men may be careless.

“I want you to realise that there are no reliable furniture removal firms any more. Now-a-days they send just anybody. All you get is a couple of rough young men with no breeding at all, no sense of the way one is meant to handle beautiful possessions. I therefore want someone responsible to be there to supervise the movers when they come to take my things from my house.” (25-6)

She is speaking to a schoolgirl.

One of the charms of this book is the construction of the sentences, often long, often beginning with a subordinate clause, and all constructed with considerable rhythm. In the first example above she gives us no less than five adjectives to communicate the sense of that chair: one of the most horribly uncomfortable highbacked wooden Victorian gothic chairs I have ever seen. The quality of her writing adds to the pleasure of reading this book.

Caroline Blackwood

Girl in Bed (1952) by Lucien Freud

This writer was unknown to me before this novel was recommended for the older women in fiction series. Caroline Blackwood was born in 1931 and died in 1996. She lived vividly, married Lucien Freud (painter), Israel Citkowitz (composer) and Robert Lowell (poet). She came from the extremely wealthy Guinness family and lived in London, New York and Ireland. She wrote other books, including biographies of Princess Margaret and Lucien Freud. Her life was blighted by alcoholism. Great Granny Webster is probably her best-known and most admired work.

Great Granny Webster by Caroline Blackwoodfirst published in 1977. I used the edition published by New York Review Books Classic. 108pp

Thanks to Jennifer Cairns for suggesting this book for the series.

Picture credit: Girl in Bed (1952) by Lucien Freud, for which Caroline Blackwood was the model. Used under ‘fair use’ for information and education.

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