Tag Archives: class

Out of the Window by Madeline Linford 

A few weeks ago I visited the Persephone Bookshop in Bath, on a visit to the Gwen John exhibition at the Holburne Museum. Some years ago the bookshop and I were based near each other in London. I would visit in my lunch hour, enjoy browsing among the republication of so many novels and memoirs by women from the last century. I had been missing this experience and was pleased to find that the relocated bookshop provides the same satisfaction. I bought one of the most recent Persephone publications.

Out of the Window

This novel was first published in 1930, between the wars. It reflects some social changes that were brought by the First World War, but also the conventions that still dominated social interactions between the wars. The author, Madeline Linton, was born in 1895, and brought up in Manchester. She worked for the Manchester Guardian and became the editor of the Women’s Pages. She wrote five novels and a biography of Mary Wollestonecraft between 1923 and 1930. It seems that criticism of Out of the Window led to her giving up that part of her writing career. What a shame! This novel shows signs of a competent and interesting writer. She died in 1975.

I don’t understand the title of this novel. Are we seeing the young heroine as someone looking ‘out of the window’ in her small council house, or is her life being thrown ‘out of the window’? It doesn’t seem to me to be a very effective title, that is it gives no clue to the author’s intentions or approach.

It is the story of the marriage of an upper-middle class young woman, Ursula, and a working-class man, Kenneth. Their marriage results from her boredom with her life in the comfortable countryside, with admirers and tennis clubs and parties. She is a bit of a rule breaker. She meets Kenneth when he is speaking about the hardship experienced by some the strikers at an event organised by one of her friends. He is very good looking and she is bright and brave.

After a brief period they decide that they are in love and they marry despite the disapproval of everyone who knows them, and each of them having a more suitable person ready to pair up with them They live on a new council housing estate where money is always tight, but he is too proud to accept any money from her family. She is hopeless at managing, cooking, cleaning and gardening. Ken’s mother, Mrs Gandy, thinks that she is a spoiled and lazy young woman. They have a row:

‘Mrs Gandy, I know you didn’t want me marrying Kenneth, but you might at least be fair to me now.’
‘And who’s to blame for me not wanting it. When there was a decent, hard-working girl who would have given her eyes for him and made as good wife, too?’
‘I don’t know what you mean, and in any case, there’s no point in saying that now. My mother didn’t want me to marry him either, but at least she always treats him civilly when we go to her house.’
‘I suppose she thought he wasn’t good enough for you?’
‘I didn’t say so, but that’s what you think of me, isn’t it?’
‘And good reason, the way things have turned out.’ (240)

Bitter words have been exchanged and Ursula leaves Mrs Gandy’s house, with Kenneth still eating his tea. We can see that there was a difference even in how the families argued. 

The two Gandys were unused to abrupt decisions and to quarrels abandoned in the very heat of their fury. (240) 

Ursula is hurt because her husband had not defended her. Ken feels a loyalty to his mother. The quarrel illustrates what the young couple are up against. It is never resolved, for events overtake the young people.

Much of this novel is about assumptions, expectations and conventions, mostly unexplored and undiscussed by the young couple. Ken is quick to take offence, and Ursula fears losing his affection and showing up her inadequacies in front of her family and friends. He sees no reason why Ursula should be dissatisfied with her home, and with motherhood. Ursula is used to having help in the home and sees motherhood as a further burden. The only person she can confide in is her ‘maiden aunt’, a ‘virtuous spinster and a member of the Church of England’. 

‘You know, there ought to be some other solution for girls in love. It isn’t fair that they should be tied all their lives and have children, just because they once felt passionate about some man and were blind to everything else. The marriage service should be postponed until they had lived together for a while and the glamorous side of it got less interesting.’ (250-1)

For Ursula it is too late. Such solutions were transgressive even who I was growing up in the 1960s. Reliable contraception and a changing view of relationships and the role of women were needed before Ursula’s vision became possible. 

The differences between the classes were difficult to manage. The parents who oppose their marriage, however, speak in terms of contrasts in education, money, circle of friends and occupations. The couple cannot see a way to make the contrasts work for them.

The wider social context does not help them either. While things are changing – better housing, job prospects, education and votes for women – the promise of more change does not seem to allow the couple to step out of the restricting expectations of their class and gender.

Out of the Window by Madeline Linford, first published in 1930. Reissued by Persephone in 2023 (#148). 284pp 

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Keeping up Appearances by Rose Macaulay

I have observed before on Bookword Blog that Rose Macaulay is a witty, playful and amusing writer. Keeping up Appearances has all these attributes, and brings to mind her collection of short pieces, Personal Pleasures (1935), for she takes a swipe at several cherished perceptions of her times, and of ours: sexism, the press, concern with presentation, identity, class and so on.

The novel was published in 1928 and republished in the British Library Women Writers series. The new version comes with a Preface by Alison Bailey and an Afterword by Simon Thomas, the series consultant.

Keeping up Appearances

Keeping up Appearances is a difficult novel to review for there is an important plot reveal about halfway through, and although I am not one to worry about spoilers, I have no wish to impair the enjoyment of readers. The revelation itself is designed to get the reader to question any assumptions they have made about the characters up to that point. 

I found it quite a difficult book to read because its structure was so uneven. It begins by featuring two women: Daisy and Daphne, and contrasting the way they appear to the world. When the story starts the two young women are staying on a Mediterranean island with the Folyots, a well-off family with three offspring. Daisy and Daphne leave the island suddenly when Daisy is unable to face a charging wild boar and is ashamed of herself. We follow these characters over the next few months as they meet again in London.

Rose Macaulay assembled an interesting cast of characters to make her points.

Daisy is illegitimate, which in 1928 was a social aberration. She had been brought up by her father’s sister and was well educated. She earns her living as a hack writer for a newspaper, producing silly pieces under her pen name Marjorie Wynne about

… those absorbing problems that beset editorial minds concerning the female sex and young persons.

The Morning Wire encourages her to write on such topics as The Best Age for a Woman, Can Women have Genius? Do Men Like a Girl to Fix her Face on the Street? After Love’s Rapture – What? She publishes a successful popular novel called Summer’s Over.

Daphne is younger than her half-sister and from a better class. She is a steadier person than Daisy, who would like to be more like her. For example, Daphne saves the youngest Folyot child from drowning.

The Folyots: Mrs Folyot rescues refugees from right wing regimes in Europe (we are in the late 1920s so there is a real issue here) and campaigns on their behalf.

What she held should be done with life was to help revolutions. (9) 

She is always organising craft sales to raise funds or writing letters the newspapers or calling meetings. Although her cause is worthy, Mrs Folyot is busy achieving nothing.

Her husband is happy to support his wife as she goes about her philanthropic activities, but more concerned with his own interest in sculpture. Their son, Raymond is interested in animal life, but not politics or sculpture.

The daughter Cary is one of the most interesting characters, for she is intelligent and perceptive, and sees through Daisy. She is very much her own person, reads, asks penetrating questions and actually listens to what the adults say.

Daisy’s mother and family live in East Sheen, although she tries to pass them off to the Folyots as inhabitants of Uist in the Outer Hebrides. Her mother is warm and generous, her stepfather has straight forward intelligence, her brother is a crime reporter for another newspaper and her sisters are growing up and have much less ambition and more sense than Daisy.

The interactions between these characters, and the plot twists as Daisy confuses everyone are the occasion for the author to make some very pointed comments about England in the late 1920s. The titles for Daisy/Marjorie Wynne’s articles are an example of this: the sexism in the press. Most of Daisy’s contortions come from her acute awareness of class divisions between her mother’s family and the Folyots. 

There are several amusing and silly plot twists. The lumping together of people by class, sex, age, or anything else is strongly criticised, and Rose Macaulay was making the case for people to be what they wanted to be, not defined by their characteristics. The title challenges the idea that an individual’s life work is to maintain the appearance they wish to project. Here is Daisy contemplating Mr Folyot’s concern that he was not the first speaker at a dinner.

She would not have guessed that Mr. Folyot, as delightful, self-controlled, and humorous, so gifted a scholar, so gentle and kind a man, had these feelings, ambitions and resentments about the order of speaking at dinners. What else had he that she had never divined? Had everyone, then, some different self, that only a few people, that sometimes only they themselves, knew? How know anyone? (131)

This is the lesson that Daisy and the reader must learn.

Rose Macaulay

Rose Macaulay

Born in 1881, Rose Macaulay wrote 23 novels before her death in 1958. She was a well-regarded novelist, perhaps most famous for her final novel The Towers of Trebizond (1958). She also wrote poetry, short fiction and many nonfiction works, including biographies and travelogues. Keeping up Appearances was her 16th novel. She was a woman of strong opinions and an unconventional personal life.

Keeping up Appearances by Rose Macaulay, first published in 1928 and reissued in the British Library Women Writers series in 2022. 261pp

Related Posts

Potterism by Rose Macaulay (August 2020)

Non-Combatants and Others: writings against war by Rose Macaulay (September 2020)

The Towers of Trebizond by Rose Macaulay (October 2020)

Some books to help you through the night, including Personal Pleasures: Essays on enjoying life by Rose Macaulay (January 2022)

Heavenali’s review refers to Keeping up Appearances as clever and entertaining and notes that it is still relevant today. (April 2021)

Stuck in a Book blog also reviewed it favourably in February 2010. Simon, the blogger, is the consultant for British Library Women Writers

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Girl, Woman, Other by Bernardine Evaristo

Are there any readers who have failed to notice this book? It won the Booker Prize 2019; it is shortlisted for the Women’s Prize for Fiction in 2020. It sparkles. It’s about 12 people – girls, women and one other. I am highly recommending it.

Girl, Woman, Other

This is a long book, divided into five chapters and including an epilogue. The first four chapters each feature the stories of three people. Each story is connected to others in this collection, and the connections help it to zip along with energy.

Its epicentre is London, a London with which I became very familiar and where I lived and worked for 35 years. Most of that time I lived in Hackney, and worked either in the city’s secondary schools or at the Institute of Education, which was part of the University of London at that time, teaching teachers on masters and doctoral courses.

During that time the so-called Second Wave of feminism died down, although those of us struggling in a discriminatory world did not feel that we were in any way in post-feminist times. During that time, girls were still experiencing growing up on terms decided by men. There remained a great deal of discrimination, on the grounds of class, ethnicity and gender identity. It was hard for the young people in the schools, and hard for young women in the poorer areas. 

Bernardine Evaristo covers this ground, and more. Her imaginative ability to conjure up these lives interacted with my memory of these times, and added the important ingredient of experiences of minority ethnicities.

Her characters engage with discrimination, migration, heredity, gender identity, marriage, parenthood, abusive relationships, struggles with education, employment, and so on. So much of life is here, with a female and black emphasis.

She has written beautifully about this kind of territory before, not least in Mr Loverman, set in the Hackney I knew, it could almost have been in my street!

What the judges saw

Passionate, razor-sharp, brimming with energy and humour, a must-read about modern Britain and womanhood … Dazzling. [Booker Judges quoted on the cover, quoted on the back cover of the Penguin edition]

There is so much to enjoy in this book, not least the way in which it is written. I do not recall another book that has so many main characters, and which links their lives in ways which illuminate their own and other stories. The multiple stories are told vividly, and not restricted to London or to suffering although every person featured, like every person on the planet, has to engage with the difficulties and beauties of life. 

And she has adopted a somewhat restless style of writing: the text appears to be divided in traditional ways. There are chapters, with subdivision within them. On the page the text appears to be in paragraphs, but they are constructed of a main sentence or starter and then continue with a series of subclauses. Here’s an example from the start of the novel:

Chapter One
Amma
1
Amma
is walking along the promenade of the waterway that bisects her city, a few early morning barges cruise slowly by
to her left is the nautical-themed footbridge with its deck-like walkway and sailing mast pylons
to her right is the bend in the river as it heads east past Waterloo Bridge towards the dome of St Paul’s
she feels the sun begin to rise, the air still breezy before the city clogs up with heat and fumes
a violinist plays something suitably uplifting further along the promenade
Amma’s play, The Last Amazon of Dahomey, opens at the National tonight (1)

I love the way this innovative form allows for multiple experiences, unfinished ideas, variation, and, in this opening statement, tells us a everything we need to know about who is featured, where and when and it alerts us to a significant event later that same day.

As I say, I highly recommend it and I am sorry our book group decided to read eleven other books this year, I would have liked to have discussed it with them. Maybe next year. But my enthusiasm has confirmed my daughter’s interest, especially as I told her she will find her school and college friends here, and our neighbours from when she was growing up.

Girl, Woman, Other by Bernardine Evaristo (2019). I read the Penguin paperback edition. 453pp

Connected posts

Mr Loverman by Bernardine Evaristo (2013) from Bookword in August 2014

HeavenAli reviewed Girl, Woman, Other on her blog in October last year. You can find her review here.

And an interesting list of recommendations provided by Bernardine Evaristo appeared on the Penguin site in March 2020

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