Tag Archives: Auschwitz

The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank

Choosing non-fiction by women from each decade of the 20thCentury can be tricky. But for the 1940s there was really no choice. To begin with I was reluctant. I sought other important books by women. In the end, it had to be this book. Anne Frank’s Diaryis my choice for the 1940s in the Decades Project on Bookword. And it has to be this book for a simple reason. The 1940s were defined by the horrors of the Second World War, and amongst the horrors was the Holocaust in which Anne Frank was first a witness and then a victim. We must never forget.

Sue Black, a forensic anthropologist, has examined bodies in mass graves, following the paths of brutal armies and militias. Her job is to find the truth of what happened to the people in such graves. She describes the impetus to do this work in this way:

We need to show that ‘our humanity transcends the worst malevolence of which our species and nature are capable’. Sue Black (2018) All That Remains: A Life in Death.

Ann Frank’s Diaryis hard to read, for we know that her brief and bright life ended in Bergen-Belsen just weeks before its liberation. But to reread it is to know again that there is humanity in the world, even in the face of the worst malevolence.

Some facts

Anne Frank was born on 12thJune 1929 in Frankfurt, Germany. Her family moved to The Netherlands in 1933 in response to the Nazi regime in Germany. When Holland was occupied and Jews being taken away, her family went into hiding. Her father, mother and older sister joined with another family (called the van Daans by Anne Frank) and later a dentist and all eight people lived in the Annexe at 263 Princengracht. The house is a fixture on the Amsterdam tourist trail.

They remained in hiding from July 1942, a month after Anne had begun her diary, until 1944 when they were arrested on 4thAugust. The last entry in the diary is dated 1stAugust. Anne was sent to Auschwitz, and then on to Bergen-Belsen with her sister. They both died in the typhus epidemic probably in February or March 1945. The camp was liberated on 12thApril. Her father, Otto Frank, was the only survivor from the Annexe.

The text of the diary

Two secretaries had worked in the building and supported the people in hiding. They found the pages of Anne’s diaries strewn over the floor after the arrest. Miep Gies locked them away in a drawer. When Otto returned, and it was clear that Anne had not survived, Miep gave the diary to Anne’s father.

He devoted the rest of his life to publishing and promoting Anne’s diary because of its simple resonance with people and its positive message. It was not an immediate best-seller, even in Holland. A shortened version was published to begin with. But gradually as it was translated, and as her father decided to publish the full text, it became better known and more widely read.

Anne had revised some of her original text herself, because in 1944 the Dutch Government in exile announced that it would publish eyewitness accounts after the war. Anne provided pseudonyms for many people, and revised early entries. But she hoped it would be published.

And why should it be read even now?

We must never forget. A thirteen year old girl, lively, vivacious, inquisitive, was growing up in Amsterdam with her life ahead of her. She stands for the many, many people who suffered under fascism and from the antisemitic policies of the Nazi occupiers. It is in the everyday stories of lives destroyed that we can begin to understand the damage wrought by such policies.

This is a young girl’s account of being alive, growing up in restricted circumstances. She is an adolescent, highly self-conscious, very analytical, very sensitive. In distressing and difficult circumstances she hones her beliefs and comes to honour particular qualities in people – equality, honesty, unselfishness, kindness, listening, asserting oneself and so on. And she tries to carry on being alive as best she can, missing the natural world, fresh air, her friends, varied activities, school. She tries hard to remain positive. She mostly succeeds.

This is one book where knowing the ending, or the absence of ending, provides the impetus to read. It is a compelling story: so many months in hiding, so many tiny battles and irritations with the other occupants of the Annexe, so much time to survive, so many hopes, fears, alarms, and even hopeful news when in June 1944 they heard about the invasion: D-Day, at last. There should have been a happy-ever-after.

But we do need evidence, as Sue Black says, that humanity can transcend our species’ worst malevolence. Anne Frank’s diary does provide such evidence, also bearing witness to her father’s determination to do the right thing for her, and to the helpers who kept the family alive.

Anne Frank 1940 (school photo, photographer unknown)

The Diary of a Young Girlby Anne Frank, first published in a short form in 1947. I used the Penguin revised and definitive edition of 2003. 350pp

Translated from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, edited by Otto H Frank and Mirjam Pressler.

The Decades project on Bookword

In 2018 I am featuring non-fiction by women for each decade in the project having focused on novels in 2017. I select one book each month from successive decades (January 1900-1909; February 1910-1919 etc). Suggestions are always welcome.

Here are the links to the previous three books in the Decades Project:

My Own Storyby Emmeline Pankhurst(1914)

Another look at A Room of One’s Ownby Virginia Woolf(1928)

Testament of Youthby Vera Brittain(1933)

To subscribe and receive email notifications of future posts on Bookwordplease enter your email address in the box.

2 Comments

Filed under Books, Reading, Reviews, The Decade project

Some Tough Reading

I have chosen to read some pretty tough books recently. They all concern the large-scale political events of the 20th and 21st centuries, and all concern wilful and intentional policy of inhumane treatment towards others. Depressing indeed!

The books refer to Russia in the time of Stalin’s great purges, Paris and Auschwitz in the 1940s, China from the 1930s through to Tiananmen Square and the plight of refugees in Europe today. Books take you to places you have never been, but can profoundly depress you while you are there. What follows is a kind of inhumanity Mash-up.

Do Not Say We Have Nothing by Madeleine Thien

I put off reading this novel, and then I had to restart it. It was difficult to read. With brilliant story-telling gifts Madeleine Thien retells the history of China through its effects on several generations of one family and their friends. At the centre of her narrative is Sparrow, a Chinese composer, and Lai his friend and a brilliant concert pianist. But the story stretches back from the wanderings of Sparrow’s mother in the 1930s and forward from the starting point of the novel when Sparrow’s daughter meets Kai’s daughter in Toronto. The fathers have both died.

What links them through this terrible period of Chinese history is music and literature in the face of oppression and mob enforce repression.. Music and literature forge family loyalties, even in the face of violent opposition to Western culture, or any artistic expression.

The stories of the family members over time merge, as they wander off, surface again in distant provinces, often in exile or in terrible prison camps. They suffer enforced re-education, the mob mentality of the Cultural Revolution and the Red Guards, the demonstrations and repression of Tiananmen Square. The willingness of the people to try to do as bidden in order to make China better is heartrending in the face of so much brutality. One asks: and today?

It’s a captivating book and one that I have frequently seen read on train journeys.

Do Not Say We Have Nothing by Madeleine Thien (2016) Published by Granta 473pp

Short-listed for the Man Booker Prize 2016 and short-listed for Bailey’s Women’s Fiction prize 2017

Into the Whirlwind by Eugenia Ginzburg

Endpaper for Into The Whirlwind

This book is a memoir, beginning with an account of the author’s arrest in 1937, accused of betraying the Revolution. Sentenced to 10 years in solitary, she endures two in the company of Julia before being sent on to a labour camp in East Russia.

From the moment she is sentenced she has no knowledge of her husband, or of their children (seeing only one of her sons in later life). It’s a grim story, beginning with the Kafka-esque accusations that began the great purge, the cult of personality. The conditions under which the first three years of her sentence are served are so appalling both in isolation and in the work camp, that one wonders anyone survived. At each stage the women support each other, learn how to deal with their warders and those who control their lives. This volume (but not her imprisonment) ends in 1940, and she continued her memoirs in another volume, up to the point of her rehabilitation in the 1950s.

The personal cost of Stalin’s monstrous campaign to ensure his own rule is vividly revealed. Remaining human was a constant struggle, to do with clothes, footwear, keeping warm, eating and acts of generosity towards others.

Into the Whirlwind by Eugenia Ginzburg (1967) Published by Persephone Books 344pp

Translated from the Russian by Paul Stevenson and Manya Harari

A Train in Winter: A story of Resistance, Friendship and Survival in Auschwitz by Caroline Moorehead

While this book is a story of courage generosity and hope (cover blurb) it is also a depressing account of barbarity, inhumanity and the infliction of suffering. It focuses on the 230 French women sent to Auschwitz in January 1943, arrested for anti-German activities. It leaves us to imagine what happened to their menfolk, friends, children and the others who died in huge numbers even before the women arrived in Auschwitz.

The culpability of the Vichy government, the French police, the German occupiers of France, the many who betrayed the communists and members of the Resistance, the guards and commanders of the camps, the medical staff, the Kapos is overwhelming. And so is the disappointment of the women who were largely ignored on their return to France.

What kept the 49 women who survived alive? Friendship, care for each other, courage, hope and a determination to tell the story of what they had experienced and seen.

I included my reflections on this book in a post about visiting Auschwitz, Bookword in Poland.

A Train in Winter: A story of Resistance, Friendship and Survival in Auschwitz by Caroline Moorehead (2011) Published by Vintage 374pp

And just in case you think that this kind of inhumanity doesn’t happen any more in Europe, I refer you to the recent post reviewing a novel about refugees in Germany: Go, Went, Gone by Jenny Erpenbeck.

To subscribe and receive email notifications of future posts on Bookword please enter your email address in the box.

2 Comments

Filed under Books, Reading, Women in Translation

Bookword in Poland

Last week I was in Poland, spending four days in and around Krakow. I came, with a friend, to visit Auschwitz-Birkenau. It was the biggest of the concentration and extermination camps built in occupied Poland by the Third Reich.

Everything about visiting Auschwitz-Birkenau is difficult. Friends questioned my motives. I dreaded the visit. What did I hope to achieve by looking at the place where so many people were murdered?

Birkenau Gate

Can fiction help us understand the Holocaust?

I prefer my reading about the Holocaust to be non-fiction. I prepared for my visit by reading A Train in Winter (see below), and I had some knowledge from my history studies. Our guide around Auschwitz kept saying. ‘imagine if you …, imagine how it would be …’ as we passed photographs of the Selection, of new arrivals and we gazed on mountains of suitcases (all labelled with names), shoes, eyeglasses, hair, and household objects. I did not want to imagine any more. I wanted to ask historians’ questions: How did it happen? Who could have stopped it? What prevented people stopping the creation of the camps? What does it mean to be part of an enterprise that murders so many people? And so on.

I wasn’t expecting any answers but a different way to experience the questions.

Auschwitz

I know we need heroes, like Schindler, because heroes give us hope. But we need more than heroes.

I know we need more than imagining walking a mile in those shoes.

We need to understand how we can continue to work against this capacity of humans to murder on such a scale. The Holocaust happened in the decade before my birth. There have been/are other such horrors: Cambodia, Rwanda, Myanmar’s treatment of the Rohingya, continuing struggles against white supremacists in the US, the re-emergence of the far right in the German election. It is likely there will be more. It is likely that the struggle will never be over.

A Train in Winter: A story of Resistance, Friendship and Survival in Auschwitz by Caroline Moorehead

This is the stunning story of courage generosity and hope (cover blurb) but it is also an endlessly depressing account of barbarity, inhumanity and the infliction of suffering. What is omitted in this account of the 230 French women sent to Auschwitz in January 1943 is any detail of the fate of their menfolk, friends, and the others who died in huge numbers even before the women arrived in Auschwitz.

The culpability of the Vichy government, the French police, the German occupiers of France, the many who betrayed the communists and members of the Resistance, the guards and commanders of the camps, the medical staff, the Kapos is overwhelming. And so is the disappointment of the women who were largely ignored on their return to France.

What kept the 49 women who survived alive? Friendship, care for each other, courage, hope and a determination to tell the story of what they had experienced and seen.

It must have been a hard task to research and then write about so much death and cruelty. I felt defeated by it, wretched that humans can behave so badly.

A Train in Winter: A story of Resistance, Friendship and Survival in Auschwitz by Caroline Moorehead (2011) Vintage 374 pp

See also Village of Secrets by Caroline Moorehead in my post on Bookword in the Cevennes.

The Auschwitz Violin by Maria Angels Anglada

Auschwitz

I think it is almost impossible to write an authentic novel about the Holocaust. This partly because a concentration camp, the tattoo on the wrist, is a trope that prevents critique, let alone criticism and limits the reader’s responses. I felt this way about this novel.

The Auschwitz Violin is a short novel which aims to show the power of music to save the spirit in the darkest of times. Daniel is a violin maker (a luthier) in one of Auschwitz’s satellite camps. Although registered as a carpenter he finds himself used by the Commandant in a bet to make a violin. This endeavour saves him and his friend the violinist Bronislaw from death.

It was contrived and unevenly framed. I found myself asking can the sweetness of a violin cut through the dreadfulness of the camp? The tension arises from whether the violin can be made in time and be of a adequate quality under such conditions. But tension is undermined by the reader’s knowledge that it already had been made. And by the knowledge that so many in Auschwitz did not have the luthier’s skills to save them. It felt very much in the tradition of the Holocaust novels of the ‘80s.

The Auschwitz Violin by Maria Angels Anglada, first published in 1994, and in English in 2010. Corsair. 128pp. Translated from the Catalan by Martha Tennant

Other books about Auschwitz It quickly became clear that there should be a monument to Steven Spielberg in Krakow, as the film Schindler’s List is so appreciated here and much referred to by our city guide. My mutterings that it was based on a novel, Schindler’s Ark by Thomas Keneally (1982), impressed no one. Perhaps people deal better with the savagery of the Holocaust when it is mediated through films and/or novels. Did they feel better for a hero?

And to a lesser extent the same happened with Sophie’s Choice, also a film, this time based on the novel by William Styron (1979).

Here are some books relating to Auschwitz by those who there, without novelists or film directors.

I still think about If this is a man by Primo Levi.

An important book that I read some years ago is Man’s search for meaning by Viktor Frankl (1946).

And a book that explores subsequent generations’ experiences of the Holocaust is After such Knowledge by Eva Hoffman (2005).

Lovely bookish things in Krakow

To finish on an easier note the city of Krakow provided several bookish delights.

We had a delicious lunch in the bookshop Bona. Delicious lunch and books …

And, according to our guide and the plaque, the first European bookshop was opened in the square.

To subscribe and receive email notifications of future posts on Bookword please enter your email address in the box.

12 Comments

Filed under Books, Reading, Travel with Books, Travelling with books