Tag Archives: Amsterdam

The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank

Choosing non-fiction by women from each decade of the 20thCentury can be tricky. But for the 1940s there was really no choice. To begin with I was reluctant. I sought other important books by women. In the end, it had to be this book. Anne Frank’s Diaryis my choice for the 1940s in the Decades Project on Bookword. And it has to be this book for a simple reason. The 1940s were defined by the horrors of the Second World War, and amongst the horrors was the Holocaust in which Anne Frank was first a witness and then a victim. We must never forget.

Sue Black, a forensic anthropologist, has examined bodies in mass graves, following the paths of brutal armies and militias. Her job is to find the truth of what happened to the people in such graves. She describes the impetus to do this work in this way:

We need to show that ‘our humanity transcends the worst malevolence of which our species and nature are capable’. Sue Black (2018) All That Remains: A Life in Death.

Ann Frank’s Diaryis hard to read, for we know that her brief and bright life ended in Bergen-Belsen just weeks before its liberation. But to reread it is to know again that there is humanity in the world, even in the face of the worst malevolence.

Some facts

Anne Frank was born on 12thJune 1929 in Frankfurt, Germany. Her family moved to The Netherlands in 1933 in response to the Nazi regime in Germany. When Holland was occupied and Jews being taken away, her family went into hiding. Her father, mother and older sister joined with another family (called the van Daans by Anne Frank) and later a dentist and all eight people lived in the Annexe at 263 Princengracht. The house is a fixture on the Amsterdam tourist trail.

They remained in hiding from July 1942, a month after Anne had begun her diary, until 1944 when they were arrested on 4thAugust. The last entry in the diary is dated 1stAugust. Anne was sent to Auschwitz, and then on to Bergen-Belsen with her sister. They both died in the typhus epidemic probably in February or March 1945. The camp was liberated on 12thApril. Her father, Otto Frank, was the only survivor from the Annexe.

The text of the diary

Two secretaries had worked in the building and supported the people in hiding. They found the pages of Anne’s diaries strewn over the floor after the arrest. Miep Gies locked them away in a drawer. When Otto returned, and it was clear that Anne had not survived, Miep gave the diary to Anne’s father.

He devoted the rest of his life to publishing and promoting Anne’s diary because of its simple resonance with people and its positive message. It was not an immediate best-seller, even in Holland. A shortened version was published to begin with. But gradually as it was translated, and as her father decided to publish the full text, it became better known and more widely read.

Anne had revised some of her original text herself, because in 1944 the Dutch Government in exile announced that it would publish eyewitness accounts after the war. Anne provided pseudonyms for many people, and revised early entries. But she hoped it would be published.

And why should it be read even now?

We must never forget. A thirteen year old girl, lively, vivacious, inquisitive, was growing up in Amsterdam with her life ahead of her. She stands for the many, many people who suffered under fascism and from the antisemitic policies of the Nazi occupiers. It is in the everyday stories of lives destroyed that we can begin to understand the damage wrought by such policies.

This is a young girl’s account of being alive, growing up in restricted circumstances. She is an adolescent, highly self-conscious, very analytical, very sensitive. In distressing and difficult circumstances she hones her beliefs and comes to honour particular qualities in people – equality, honesty, unselfishness, kindness, listening, asserting oneself and so on. And she tries to carry on being alive as best she can, missing the natural world, fresh air, her friends, varied activities, school. She tries hard to remain positive. She mostly succeeds.

This is one book where knowing the ending, or the absence of ending, provides the impetus to read. It is a compelling story: so many months in hiding, so many tiny battles and irritations with the other occupants of the Annexe, so much time to survive, so many hopes, fears, alarms, and even hopeful news when in June 1944 they heard about the invasion: D-Day, at last. There should have been a happy-ever-after.

But we do need evidence, as Sue Black says, that humanity can transcend our species’ worst malevolence. Anne Frank’s diary does provide such evidence, also bearing witness to her father’s determination to do the right thing for her, and to the helpers who kept the family alive.

Anne Frank 1940 (school photo, photographer unknown)

The Diary of a Young Girlby Anne Frank, first published in a short form in 1947. I used the Penguin revised and definitive edition of 2003. 350pp

Translated from the Dutch by Susan Massotty, edited by Otto H Frank and Mirjam Pressler.

The Decades project on Bookword

In 2018 I am featuring non-fiction by women for each decade in the project having focused on novels in 2017. I select one book each month from successive decades (January 1900-1909; February 1910-1919 etc). Suggestions are always welcome.

Here are the links to the previous three books in the Decades Project:

My Own Storyby Emmeline Pankhurst(1914)

Another look at A Room of One’s Ownby Virginia Woolf(1928)

Testament of Youthby Vera Brittain(1933)

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Paintings in Four Novels

Every novel I read for a brief period recently seemed to contain references to paintings, were about eminent painters, or were inspired by particular paintings, or the plot turned on the art of the painting. Here is a selection of four, beginning with the best!

  1. How to be both by Ali Smith (2014)

160 How to be bothThis was one of my best reads of the last 12 months: judges of many prizes agreed, including Baileys Women’s Fiction Prize which it won in June this year. This novel draws on fresco painting techniques in its layering of stories, and in its exploration of ambiguity. The paintings are the frescoes in Ferrara, and in the National Gallery, St Vincent Ferrer by Francesco del Cossa.

You can read my review about the novel from March 2015 here.

  1. Girl with a Pearl Earring by Tracy Chevalier (1999)

190 Girl with coverThis book was a best seller, not least because of the film adaptation. The book tells the story of a servant girl, Griet, and the picture painted of her by the great Dutch painter – Johannes Vermeer. It is narrated in the voice of Griet, who is unfamiliar with the world of the artist, but learns how to mix his paints, pose for him and eventually to loose her innocence through her relationship with the painter.

Tracy Chevalier has made a speciality of highly researched historical fiction. The insights into the Delft household, and Dutch society in the seventeenth century are among the attractive details of this novel. Vermeer has become very popular since the book was published. Here is a picture of the crowd around another of his paintings at the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam.  Girl with a Pearl Earring is in The Hague in the Mauritshuis.

190 Vermeer crush

  1. Rembrandt’s Whore by Sylvie Matton (first published 1997)

Translated from the French by Tamsin Black

142 R's whoreThis is novel also takes its inspiration from a Dutch artist. But it was written in French. As the title suggests, Hendrickje Stoffels, Rembrandt’s housekeeper, is condemned by the Calvinist citizens of Amsterdam. She tells her story from her arrival in Rembrandt’s house as an illiterate maid, to the moment she dies of plague, after having given birth to a daughter.

The theme is the valuing of art and love over dogma and narrow-mindedness. The novel drew me into the life of Amsterdam and its people, as you can read in the longer review in December 2014, one of a group of novels I reviewed that were situated in Amsterdam.

  1. Summer in February by Jonathan Smith (1995)

190 SUmmer in F coverThis novel draws, not from a single painting, but on a group of artists who congregated in Cornwall before the First World War. They were real people.

It concerns a love triangle. The larger-than-life figure – all performance and attention demanding – is AJ Munnings, who later as Sir Alfred Munnings became President of the Royal Academy. His rival in love is Captain Evans a rather staid, but open young man. The men are portrayed as complete opposites, but friends. The object of their affections is Florence Carter Ward. Florence’s character really irritated me: a fatally attractive woman, men are unable to resist her. She was the subject of Munning’s painting, Morning Ride, sold for nearly half a million pounds at Christies in 2000.

Florence married Munnings, and the story follows them until the tragic ending of the unhappy triangle. Was this novel more than a love story? Was it anything to do with painting? What was the influence of love on painting and of painting on the novel? And what was the role of that other artist Dame Laura Knight?

Of the four novels referred to in this post, this was the least convincing to me. But it is interesting how novelists use painting and painters in their writing.

What novels have you read that are influenced by painting or painters?

Related posts

How to be Both by Ali Smith

Amsterdam Stories

 

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Amsterdam Stories

142 Amsterdam BridgeAmsterdam, city of canals, bicycles and Anne Frank. I love it. In 2014 I visited twice, seduced by flights from Exeter Airport and by the reopening of the Rijksmusem. On both occasions I spent a whole day in the museum. Before the second visit I found a list of the ten best books set in Amsterdam, compiled by Malcolm Burgess. I chose two to read while I was there.

The book that dominates Amsterdam is The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank. But I’m going to sidestep it. I don’t underestimate its significance, charm and poignancy but Amsterdam is much more than the city where Anne Frank lived, hid, wrote and died.142 Am flowers

 

Rituals by Cees Nooteboom

Translated from the Dutch by Adrienne Dixon.

142 RitualsCees Nooteboom is, according to Malcolm Burgess, the greatest living Dutch novelist and Rituals is his masterpiece. It won the Pegasus Prize in 1981, having been published the previous year. I have to admit that I had not heard of Cees Nooteboom before. I think that this is because I am out of touch with European literature.

I found this a very interesting but troubling book. The Amsterdam setting is without special significance, although it had to be ituated somewhere and I did enjoy recognising some of the places mentioned in the novel.

I found time in the novel was a challenging aspect. There are three episodes related in Rituals, associated with three different people, the narrator, Inni Wintrop, and Arnold and Philip Taads. The Intermezzo is the first movement, set in 1963, the father Arnold Taads in 1953 and then the son leapfrogging ahead to 1973. It is an interesting approach for a novelist and highlighted dimensions of the relationships between the three men in an unsettling way.

The three men have some things in common, all attempt suicide; all try to find answers to the question of how to live by adopting the rituals of the title. Some rituals are formal or recognised: the Roman Catholic Church, Japanese aestheticism and tea rituals, Hari Krishna and nihilism. Others are rituals placed on life by the individuals to give it form: chasing women, selling art, organisation of time, daily rituals and so forth.

Cees Nooteboom appears to be asking how we make meaning from being alive, and how some attempts to understand life are flawed, meaningless and lead to nothing. He is also examining how time affects our understanding. I find this description of the older Tadd’s routines to be nightmarish.

Time, Inni learned that day, was the father of all things in Arnold Taad’s life. He had divided the empty, dangerous expanse of the day into a number of precisely measured parts, and the boundary posts at the beginning and end of each part determined his day with unrelenting sternness. Had he been older, Inni would have known the fear that dominated Arnold Taads demanded its tithes in hours, half hours, and quarter hours, randomly applied points of fracture in the invisible element through which we must wade as long as we live. It was as if, in an endless desert, someone had singled out a particular grain of sand and decided that only there could he eat and read. Each of these preappointed grains of sand called forth, with compelling force, its own complementary activity. A mere ten millimetres further and fate would strike. Someone arriving ten or fifteen minutes early or late was not welcome. The maniacal second hand turned the first page, played the first note on the piano, or, as now, put a pan of goulash on the stove on the last stroke of seven. (84)

This kind of philosophising seems to me to be a European phenomenon. Think of Meursault in Camus’s L’Etranger, dealing with the nothingness of life by committing a random murder.

 

Rembrandt’s Whore by Sylvie Matton

Translated from the French by Tamsin Black.

142 R's whoreThis novel is a complete contrast to Rituals: it was written in French in 1999, by a woman and is set in the seventeenth century.

The narrator is Hendrickje Stoffels, Rembrandt’s mistress after the death of his wife Saskia. As the title indicates she is condemned by the elders of Amsterdam. Her story begins when she arrives in Rembrandt’s house as an illiterate maid, and takes us through the birth to her daughter to her death. She addresses Rembrandt much of the time. It’s an intimate account of the domestic life of the great master, his business arrangements and financial difficulties, his social relations and daily life in Amsterdam in the mid seventeenth century. Here’s an example taken from her early days in the house.

I always used to look down when I went in to see you. Even when Geertje sent me to your studio in her place with the herrings and the beer. I’d knock gently, three little taps at the door. Come in, you said, and I’d go in. And I’d wait, holding the plate and pitcher, and behind your back I’d watch the picture emerge from your painting. I could see that great greasy crust on the palette of nameless colours, and bladders of paints and pots of oil that smelled of garlic, the hen’s feathers, and lavender. I’d learnt to breathe slowly with my mouth open, and my eyes no longer stung.

Barent Fabritius had given me his hand and brought me right into the pupils’ studio, where the artist who crushes the paint watches the oils heat until they become clear; then he can break up the colour into them. Not too hot, make sure the hen’s feather doesn’t fry in the turpentine. Beside him, an apprentice is stirring the bones and the skin of a rabbit till they melt in a bain-marie – the steam coming off it’s disgusting. If they’re mixed with powdered chalk they’ll turn into skin glue. (19-20)

The research is used to make clear the concreteness of painting and etching, and a visit to the Rembrandtshuis makes clear the physical effort, the smells, textures, shapes and colours with which Rembrandt spent his days. In this way the novel drew me into the life of old Amsterdam and its people. And it was authentic enough to add to the enjoyment of my visit.

The novel’s theme is the importance of art and love over form and narrow-mindedness. But we are reminded that in the end even fate, death, will get you – for some in the form of the plague.

And I will also enjoy the National Gallery exhibition, Rembrandt: The Late Works (until 18th January and later in Amsterdam at the Rijksmuseum).

my desk this morning.

my desk this morning.

I may have started a new series of books and cities. The first two posts were

Tales from the Vienna Streets and

Berlin Stories

I’m planning a trip to Russia (Moscow and St Petersburg) next year. Any suggestions for related reading? Or any other books set in Amsterdam that you would recommend?

 

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