Monthly Archives: April 2024

The Family from One End Street by Eve Garnett

Published in 1937, a couple of years before the outbreak of war, this story of a large family appealed greatly to me when I read it 20 years later. At that time, the life of the family did not seem so different from what I saw about me. Their outlook, their general attitude is now called Blitz spirit. I had misremembered where the Ruggles lived, fixed in my mind that it was in the East End of London, where a cheerful approach to life’s challenges prevailed, we were told. One End Street was in Otwell, a fictional town on the river Ouse.

Eve Garnett portrayed a real family, although in a somewhat idealised manner. They lived in a town, had neighbours, the parents had jobs, the children achieved variously at school. The appeal of this large and active family is enhanced by the illustrations, by the author. It was, to my mind, an ideal Puffin book, and set the standard for my reading for several years.

  

The Family from One End Street

The Ruggles family was even larger than mine with seven children. But there were two big differences, the Ruggles lived in a town and they were poor, working class. Mrs Ruggles, Rosie, took in laundry and Mr Ruggles earned a living by collecting rubbish – a dustman as we called them. The reader is introduced to all 7 children through the device of finding names for their Christenings. 

The chapter headings indicate the spirit of the book:

  • The Christenings
  • Lily Rose and the Green Silk Petticoat
  • The Gang of the Black Hand
  • The Adventure of the Parked Car
  • The Baby Show
  • What Mr Ruggles Found
  • The Perfect Day

There is a great deal of humour in these stories. For example, Lily Rose, the oldest child, decides to help her mother by doing some ironing and starts with a green silk petticoat.

She spread out the petticoat carefully, took what she thought to be the cool iron from the stove and began. She made one long sweep up and down with the iron, and oh! what was happening! The petticoat was shrinking … shrinking … shrivelling up … running away before her eyes! Smaller and smaller it grew, while Lily Rose gazed fascinated and as if rooted to the spot, her eyes and mouth round ‘o’s of horror! 
At last the shrinking seemed to stop and there it lay, the beautiful green silk petticoat, no bigger than a doll’s – too small even for William [the baby], – had he worn such things! (25)

How well Eve Garnett captures that feeling of horror when a well-intentioned child finds her actions have taken a terrible turn. Following this dreadful event, Lily Rose must own up to the owner of the petticoat, Mrs Beasley, who is one of Rosie’s best clients. For Rosie has a strong moral code that she requires her children to live by.

Not long after the episode with the petticoat, Mr Ruggles finds a great deal of money in the rubbish he has collected. It would feed all his dreams, of owning a pig, and of taking the family to the grand Cart Horse Parade in London. Honesty brings its rewards on both occasions, but the reader is treated to a dilemma familiar to young people: to own up or to hide the truth. 

Jo’s jersey

The children have adventures. The twins, Jim and John are required to have adventures when they join the Gang of the Black Hand. They both have misadventures, stowed away in a barge and a car, with some scary moments and great outcomes. Kate gets to go to the seaside with some school friends, but her precious school hat gets blown away and she tries to earn the money to replace it. Her adventure picking mushrooms, is also nearly a catastrophe. 

But her original hat is returned by a stranger, and the reader is introduced to another theme of these stories: the kindness of strangers, who frequently rescue the children and boost their material resources. Often this is in response to the resourcefulness of the children in the face of poverty: for example, Jo manages to get members of the orchestra at the local cinema to provide him with a ticket. They found him asleep in the orchestra pit, waiting for the feature to begin.

Not everyone is generous and kind. Mrs Smith-next-door-but-two makes unkind judgements one Sunday about the children’s appearances and is known by Rosie as Mrs Nosey Parker. She goes round to investigate Rosie Ruggles’s situation. 

A strange sight met her eyes when the door was opened; nothing less than Mrs Ruggles in her petticoat and jumper, her hair in curling pins, an iron I her hand, while through a mist of steam and airing clothes could be faintly seen the figure of Mr Ruggles, clothed only in pants (no better than one of them Nudists you read about, as Mrs Smith said to her husband later) busily engaged in polishing a pair of yellow-brown boots! What a spectacle for Sunday afternoon! Mrs Smith’s sympathy evaporated and righteous indignation filled her heart. (243)

The Ruggles family are preparing for a special event, the climax of this book: the Cart Horse Parade in London.

We read of a family bonded by love and pride in each other’s achievements. Everyone is disappointed when William fails to win the Grand Challenge Cup in the Baby Show. His teeth were too slow to come through, but he is awarded the title of Otwell’s Best Baby and his parents get a prize of £1 note. Kate passes the 11+ (Eleven Plus). 

Her photograph appeared in the paper, and the whole family had sardines and chocolate biscuits for tea to celebrate the event! (42)

This is the ‘30s, and free secondary education is not yet universal. Furthermore Kate will need special clothes for five years, not hand-me-downs. Her place is in jeopardy in the face of such expense, until Mr Ruggles fills in a form for a grant. His writing is not good, and in the box where he must say how many children he has the number 7 appears at first as a figure 1. It was a genuine problem for parents, especially parents of girls, how to support them in secondary school where family funds were so limited.

Eve Garnett also celebrates the ambitions and dreams of her characters, such as Kate’s ambition to continue her education. The climax to the stories is the fulfilment of the Ruggles’s wish to join Uncle Charlie in a winning cart in the Cart Horse Parade in Regent’s Park in London at Whitsun. The family have plenty of adventures that day, in the lake, arrested by a policeman for picking the flowers, and losing Jo who had swapped his designated but tight jersey for one of his father’s. It was, said Rosie, a perfect day.

The reading is easy, the stories flow, and the charm is full blown. Eve Garnett wrote a sequel, which was not published until 1956 as it had to be reassembled from a fire in her home: The Further Adventures of the Family from One End Street.

1937 Club

The 1937 Club is organised by two bloggers: Kaggsy’s Bookish Ramblings and Stuck in a Book. Bloggers post their responses to books published in 1937 on their own blogs and these are listed on the organisers’ pages. I always enjoy identifying a book to fit the club year. 

The Family from One End Street by Eve Garnett, first published in 1937. I read the Puffin Book edition from 2014. Illustrations by Eve Garnett. 304pp

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One Year’s Time by Angela Milne

Girls have always been told that their duty is to ‘get a man’, and to do so they must please him by putting him first in everything. The main character in One Year’s Time is Liza Brett, a single young woman, living in London in the 1930s, and not interested in acquiring a husband. She meets and falls in love with Walter. As their relationship progresses, they plan to spend the summer together and Liza reassures Walter:

‘… it would be rather nice to be a fallen woman. I think sin is lovely.’ (45)

The reader is presented with the development of their relationship over twelve months. We see her giving way to him in small and large matters, her growing wish for marriage and their ultimate unhappiness.

One Year’s Time

Time dominates this novel, as the title suggests. But this is not referring to the time in which they are living, for although there is a fleeting reference to a coming war, the geopolitical context does not feature. Rather it’s about how the main character spends her time in trivial and unimportant activities: at first in an office for a company whose function is never revealed; then during a rural retreat she spends her days in domestic pursuits, playing at being a wife and a housewife; the days of her summer holiday are counted down until she can return to Walter and London; this pattern intensifies through their year together. 

When Walter says he will go abroad without her, she spends the remainder of the summer with her aunt’s family. On his return he takes up a live-in job at a prep school to earn more money to finish his training, and she hardly sees him. The relationship ends in her flat (which she has reclaimed) a year after it started. He wants his freedom. She had wanted him to propose marriage.

Walter’s selfishness is gradually revealed. He calls her ‘ducky’, which even accounting for changing idioms over time, sounds disrespectful. He has a habit of flicking her neck. When they rent a cottage in the countryside they find there are two beds.

She turned over and saw the back of Walter’s head in the next bed, which was a few inches higher than hers, and a good deal softer. Walter had said ‘I’ll have the camp-bed, ducky. I can sleep on floors, and it wouldn’t be much harder.’
Liza had said, ‘No darling, I’ll have it. You’re bigger and you kick more.’ And now, whenever she saw the beds, she thought, Walter’s got the best bed. Yes, that sort of unselfishness was only cowardice, and selfishness, in equal proportions, no, cowardice and selfishness were two words for the same thing. (92) 

It is not entirely clear from this passage whether Liza sees her generosity to Walter as cowardice and a form of selfishness. Walter’s selfishness is not in doubt. The dysfunctionality of their relationship is beginning to be revealed.

Walter’s selfishness becomes more and more evident as he persuades Liza that it would be best if he left her to her own devices for the rest of the summer while he went abroad, and ultimately that he will not marry her because it would cramp his freedom. 

At last, the reader thinks, when she tells him some truths in their final quarrel. It begins when she says that she wanted ‘something beautiful’ from their relationship. Walter replies,

‘And what do you think I wanted?’
‘The same as I did.’ She was swept with a wave of anger. ‘And someone to cook your dinners, and iron your suits. Yes, I know that’s a lie. I know all about unselfishness being selfish. Everything I say comes back on me. It always does.’ (260)

Up to now she has met his anger with fear and backs down, and even now she nearly caves in again, but recovers enough to assert herself. 

‘Some people are wise and don’t mind growing up. You’re not wise. You’re – you’re nothing but an escapist.’ And she was very frightened indeed. She had said something he didn’t want to know about himself.
Walter moved. She heard him stand up, and waited with a sinking misery, for his voice. It came.
‘All right. Now we are throwing the china.’
‘Oh, darling.’ She turned round for the first time. ‘I didn’t mean it. I don’t want you to be anything you aren’t. Only I can’t bear this any longer. Say yes or no, and we’ll get married, or we’ll never see each other again.’ (262)

Finally, thinks the reader, finally you have stood up for yourself, finally you have said what you will and won’t put up with. It is painful for them both, for despite the abusiveness of the relationship, to which she contributed by giving in all the time, they loved each other.

One Year’s Time is not about whether it is wrong to ‘live in sin’, or undesirable to be described as a ‘Batchelor Girl’. It is about forming grown-up relationships. While Walter has neglected her, Liza has met David, and it is obvious that he is a better match for her, although he has gone to America to work for a couple of months. 

Although the reader hears a great deal of Liza’s inner voice, as these extracts indicate, this novel is narrated in the third person, but the point of view never leaves Liza. We read about her excitement at the start of the relationship, and the dilemmas of having to pretend to be married when ‘living in sin’ is a public statement. We see her rationalising the need to endure absence, and the counting down of days and even hours until she might see Walter again. 

Angela Milne had flair in her writing. I noticed as I typed out the quotations featuring the couple’s interactions, how skilfully she creates gaps in their exchanges, beats in the scene. Angela Milne only wrote one novel, using her literary talent for shorter pieces in Punch and reviews in the ObserverOne Year’s Time was published in 1942, during the Second World War. Angela Milne undertook war work in the Women’s Land Army and the Ministry of Information. Later she married and had two children. She lived until 1990.

I read this novel after reading about it on JacquiWine’s Journal. She welcomed this new addition to the British Library Women Writers’ series in January 2024. 

One Year’s Time by Angela Milne, first published in 1942. Re-issued in the British Library Women Writers in 2023. 275pp

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Summer Will Show by Sylvia Townsend Warner

Sylvia Townsend Warner wrote seven novels, each one very different. You may have read Lolly Willowes, a curious but engaging story about a single woman who escapes dependence on her family by becoming a witch, published in 1926. Summer Will Show was her fourth, published in 1936 when the dangers in Europe could not be ignored. 

The novels that I have read by STW are all concerned with the lives of women, often in communities of women. The teachings of the established church are challenged, as are the accepted attitudes to women. They have included lyrical descriptions of landscapes and women’s love.  The Corner that Held Them (1948) was set in a nunnery during the time of the Black Death in the C14th. The main character in Summer Will Show is a rich English woman who travels to France and gets caught up in the 1848 revolution and involved with communists.

Summer Will Show

I cannot trace the origin of the title, but this verse is quoted at the start of the novel:

Winter will shake, Spring will try,
Summer will show if you live or die.

Sophie Willoughby has been abandoned by her husband in 1847, and he now lives in France with his mistress Minna. At home, trying not to be shamed by her husband, Sophie has to endure the death of her two children, and in her mourning takes on the fancy of conceiving another child. She follows Frederick to Paris, meets Minna, becomes involved in the 1848 revolution and falls under Minna’s spell. 

Sophie becomes a revolutionary, sharing the excitement and poverty of the activists, collecting lead to make bullets, distributing Communist tracts, talking, and exploring the poorer side of Paris. The story follows her as she evades reconciliation with her husband, who cuts off her financial resources, and learns to love Minna. Taken prisoner at the barricades, Sophie is spared execution because she is ‘a lady’. She refuses her rich relative’s offer of support and will continue to live in rebellion.

This brief summary does no justice to the writing of the novel. The richest passages are the descriptive scenes: the landscape of her country house, Blandamer, in England, the scenery as she is travelling to France, and the streets of unfashionable Paris. Perhaps the most vivid scene is at the barricades. This is the moment before the climax of the story, when both Sophie and Minna are behind the barricades, supporting the insurrectionists.

This barricade was not holding out so well as the other [in the next street], or maybe the time of fighting went more swiftly than the time of waiting. Yet, when the assailants rushed it, the hand-to-hand fighting revived a fierceness that the failing ammunition had belied, and for a minute or two it seemed as though they might be driven back. Then, in the street running parallel, the sound of cannonading burst out, and as though this jarred the rhythm of fighting here, there was a wavering, a pause, and like a swarm of bees the Gardes Mobiles came over, yelling and jeering. (291)

The story itself is revealed in a way which put me in mind of the magician who pulls out and endless rope of knotted, coloured handkerchiefs from his sleeve. The reader can never predict what will happen, will be carried along by the excitement of events, especially in Paris. We are privy to Sophie’s doubts and emotions and see her struggling for integrity. 

Despite her upbringing Sophie is able to challenge the accepted modes of behaviour and beliefs about society and about women in particular. This is why she ends up defending the revolutionaries’ barricades. While still in England, mourning her two children, she considers one possible future.

For everything would go on, and she with it, broken on the wheeling year. Next summer would come, and she would walk in the silent garden, her empty heart stuffed up like an old rathole with insignificant cares, her ambition for seemliness and prosperity driving her on to oversee the pruning of trees, the trimming of hedges, the tillage of her lands, the increase of her stock. Urged and directed by her will, everything would go on, though to no end. The balsams would bloom, and she would be proud of them.
If I were a man, she thought I would plunge into dissipation. (58-9)

And the most poignant passage is spoken by a modest Frenchman, M Martin, who addresses the National Guard firing squad, while they await a priest to administer to those awaiting execution. He muses first on the effect of the delay, but then turns to the similarity between the firing squad and their victims. 

‘For you, who are here to execute us, it is probably more tedious, certainly more embarrassing [to wait]. For this break in the common routine, it lets in a draught of cold air, it gives inconvenient leisure in which to reflect on this odd business of killing one’s fellow men, one’s country-men, and people of the same class as oneself, at a word of command. For after all, you and we have much more in common than you and your officer, you and the ruling class whose orders your officer orders you to carry out.  … And if you reflect on it, you will see that you and they are constantly at war with each other, and have been during all your lives and the lives of your forefathers. But as it is a war in which, so far, they have always won, you have failed to notice that it is a war.’ (297)

This is a very rich novel, full of action, drama, unexpected events, and lively and interesting characters.

Sylvia Townsend Warner

Born in 1893 and living until 1978, Sylvia Townsend Warner was well known to other writers of the time, including, for example, TF Powys, and David Garnett. For most of that time she lived in Dorset with her ‘lifelong companion’ the poet Valentine Ackland. They had a tempestuous relationship but were fiercely loyal to each other. For more details of this relationship see: Valentine Ackland: a transgressive life by Frances Bingham, published in 2021 by Handheld Press. The couple went to Spain in 1937 during the Spanish Civil War, with the Red Cross. They were members of the Communist Party.

I reviewed The Corner that Held Them in August 2020. You can find the post on the blog here. That same year I enjoyed a short story called Sweethearts and Wives by STW in the collection of war-time stories called Wave me Goodbye. That post can be found here.

Penguin Modern Classic cover: Nude Seated on a Red Armchair (1897) by Felix Valloton, from the Musée de Grenoble, France.

Summer Will Show by Sylvia Townsend Warner, first published in 1936. I used the edition from Penguin Modern Classics (2020)310pp

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